Breast milk composition

All that breast milk protein is made up of amino acids. There are more than 20 of these compounds in your milk. Some of them, called nucleotides, increase at night and scientists think they may induce sleep. 4,5 Over 200 complex sugars called oligosaccharides 6 that act as prebiotics, feeding 'good bacteria' in your baby's gut Recently, various breast milk components and their roles have been studied according to the development of various analysis techniques. As is already well known, HBM contains about 87%-88% water, and 124- g/L solid components as macronutrients, including about 7% (60-70 g/L) carbohydrates, 1% (8-10 g/L) protein, and 3.8% (35-40 g/L) fat Alternatively, studies of milk composition can standardize collection at a specific time of day (e.g., morning) by emptying the entire breast, avoiding collection from a breast that was used for nursing within the past 2-3 hours, with collection on multiple occasions from the same individuals over time. 12 However, most published studies involve non-standardized collection from donors to milk banks whose milk is collected at different times of day, at different timings within a feed or at.

Breast milk is the gold standard for infant feeding due to its incredible composition of macronutrients, bioactive compounds, and interactive elements. (1) The World Health Organization (WHO) considers breastfeeding an unequaled way of providing ideal food to infants because of the growth-factors and anti-infective components in breast milk Breast Milk Composition At each feed, mother will first produce 'foremilk' which is watery, rich in lactose (sugar) and is designed to satisfy baby's thirst. This will then change to 'hindmilk', which is rich in fat and is designed to satisfy baby's hunger The Composition of Breast Milk Breast Milk vs. Infant Formula. Breast milk is produced by a woman's body specifically to meet her child's nutritional... Macronutrient Composition. Breast milk is primarily composed of water, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Each of... Bioactive Components. There.


Recent studies have found associations between breast milk composition (total fat, protein, human milk oligosaccharides, adiponectin, leptin, and insulin) and growth. However, the studies are few, and the results are inconsistent Breast milk contain casein as well, but not in such a large percentage as in cow`s milk. Carbohydrates - their role is primarily energetic. Lactose is the main glucide in the mother`s milk composition (7g/100 ml and 37% of the dry substance), small amounts of oligosaccharides (0.5g/100 ml) completing the carbohydrate component Breast milk or mother's milk is milk produced by mammary glands, located in the breast of a human female. Breast milk is the primary source of nutrition for newborns, containing fat, protein, carbohydrates and variable minerals and vitamins. Breast milk also contains factors that are important for implications protecting the infant against infection and inflammation, whilst also contributing to healthy development of the immune system and gut microbiome Send my FREE infant milestone guide >> What is the composition of breast milk? The approximate composition of breast milk is 87% water, 7% lactose, 4% fat, and 1% protein. The fat and lactose (a type of carb/sugar) provide most of the energy in breast milk

Human breast milk is a complex and adaptive fluid, comprised of a vast array of bioactive substances. The function of human milk is not only to provide essential nutrition to the breastfeeding infant, but also to enhance growth and development, modulate immunity, and encourage the establishment of a diverse microbiome (Andreas et al. 2015). The exact formulation of human milk is subject to huge variation What composition of breast milk? The breast milk is quite rich in fat, proteins and carbohydrates, as they are some of the most important nutrients for the growth and development of the baby. However, it also has a good amount of proteins and anti-bodies, which help maintain health and strengthen the immune system Breast milk composition: fat content and fatty acid composition in vegetarians and non-vegetarian Medela presents breastfeeding research into the composition of breast milk - from components like fats, enzymes and proteins to minerals and vitamins

The composition of breast milk changes depending on how long the baby nurses at each session, as well as on the child's age. The first type, produced during the first days after childbirth, is called colostrum. Colostrum is easy to digest although it is more concentrated than mature milk. It has. The breast milk of mothers who smoke has a lower concentration of fat, proteins and immunoglobulins. Maternal diet and body stores have a direct impact on the composition of vitamins and trace minerals in breast milk. If the breast milk is stored, frozen or thawed, the levels of fat, lactoferrin and immunoglobulins may decrease variation of breast milk composition. Trans FA** Vitamin B 12 Niacin Carotene PUFA (LA, ALA, AA, DHA) MUFA** Vitamin A/Retinol Vitamin D Vitamin E Thiamin Riboflavin Vitamin B 6 Folate Pantothenate Biotin Vitamin C Iodine Nutrients for which values presented within the literature may have changed due to a change in analytical techniques/calculations Breast milk is best for babies. At Danone India, we support breast feeding and believe that breast milk is the best food for babies as the sole source of nutrition for the first 6 months of life and is recommended to be continued until 2 years with the introduction of appropriate complementary foods after 6 months of age Breastmilk composition can vary depending on the time of day and also significantly between mothers. Due to this variability, the nutritional content of breast milk is typically provided as average values of nutrients in mature breastmilk. 2. What are the different stages of lactation? Colostru

Aside from essential nutrients, immune cells and bioactive components, breast milk also contains a diverse range of microbes, which are important for maintaining mammary and infant health. In this review, we summarise studies that have investigated the composition of the breast milk microbiota and factors that might influence it The composition of breast milk is always changing. It changes depending on: whether you are at the beginning or end of a feeding session; how old your baby is; and other factors like your diet. Breast Milk Changes over one Feeding Session During each feeding session, the milk that comes out of the breast first [ Race, age, parity, or diet do not greatly affect milk composition and there is no consistent compositional difference between milks from the two breasts unless one [breast] is infected.¹ In other words, diet, socioeconomic status, age, and race do not affect the quality or ingredients of breastmilk.The body makes the breastmilk in a certain way, as a priority, regardless of outside factors Breast Milk Composition Differs During the Feed At each feed, mother will first produce 'foremilk' which is watery, rich in lactose (sugar) and is designed to satisfy baby's thirst. This will then change to 'hindmilk', which is rich in fat and is designed to satisfy baby's hunger. The change between foremilk and hind milk is very gradual i.e. fat levels gradually increase during. That is to say, the protein content in the breast milk is much appropriate for human babies. Other than different protein, the content and composition of fat are also different. This image on left shows the fat composition of breast milk. Other than fat, it also contain lipase and essential fatty acids But the cow milk doesn't have any of them

10. Dewey KG, Finley DA, Lonnerdal B. (1984) Breast milk volume and composition during late lactation (7-20 months). 3:713-720. 11. Lonnerdal B. (2003) Nutritional and physiologic significance of human milk proteins. Am J Clin Nutr 77:1537S-1543S. 12. Mitoulas LR, Kent JC, Cox DB, Owens RA, Sherriff JL, Hartmann PE The composition of breast milk keeps varying depending on various factors such as the age of the child, the mother's health, and the mother's diet, to name a few. Water makes up around 90% of breast milk, and this is essential to keep the baby hydrated, control body temperature, provide lubrication for the joints, and protect organs

Human breast milk is a complex matrix with a general composition of 87% water, 3.8% fat, 1.0% protein, and 7% lactose. The fat and lactose, respectively, provide 50% and 40% of the total energy of the milk . However, the composition of human breast milk is dynamic and changes over time, adapting itself to the changing needs of the growing child Breast milk is best for babies. At Danone India, we support breast feeding and believe that breast milk is the best food for babies as the sole source of nutrition for the first 6 months of life and is recommended to be continued until 2 years with the introduction of appropriate complementary foods after 6 months of age Human milk composition jc 1. Journal club Human milk composition- Nutrient and bioactive factors 2. • Authors: Olivia Ballard,Ardythe L Morrow • Journal:Pediatric clinics of North America: Breast feeding Updates for the Pediatricaian. Morrow and Chantry February 2013,Volume 60,Number 1 3 Human milk composition provides the standard for human infant nutrition, including the a breast that was used for nursing within the past 2 to 3 hours, with collection on multiple occasions from the same individuals over time.12 However, most publishe

Breast milk composition What's in your breast milk? Medel

  1. A literature review of the nutrient composition of human breast milk D.1. Introduction The Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children (DNSIYC) is due to collect data on the volume of breast milk consumed by breastfed infants (through the use of isotopically labelled water), for infants attending the clinic component of the survey. I
  2. Breast milk contains thausands of molecules and bioactive compounds. Not all of these are nutritive. Many contribute to intestinal maturation, help with the digestion of nutrients, stimulate the immune system or are immunoactive themselves. Milk composition is not static; it changes through the course of lactation in a way that naturally matches the individual's needs to optimally support the.
  3. KEY WORDS Breast milk fat, fatty acid composition, lactation, lipids, vegetarians Introduction Fat in breast milk is a major source of energy and essential fatty acids required fo
  4. The composition of Breast Milk contains large amount of nutrients A, D, E, K, proteins and immunoglobulin's
  5. The composition of breast milk is unique and inimitable.It changes depending on the baby's age, the time of year and the child himself. And nature is well made: the mother's milk contains all the elements that the baby needs for growth. According to the World Health Organization, a child can be well fed with breast milk for up to three years, whether or not he is exclusively breastfed
  6. Types and Composition of Human Breast Milk • Types of Breast Milk: • Colostrum or Early Milk • Transitional Milk • Mature Milk • Colostrum or Early Milk: is produced in the late stage of pregnancy till 4 days after delivery; and is rich in antibodies. • Transitional Milk: produced from day 4 - 10 is lower in protein in comparison.
  7. Influences on breast milk composition. Breast milk composition is extremely complex, varying with the time of day, stage of the nursing process and many other factors, with the lipid being most variable in terms of concentration . 8. Time-associated changes in breast milk composition8.1. Length of lactatio

Components of human breast milk: from macronutrient to

Human Breast Milk Composition. Human Breast Milk Composition. Fats - 34% - Building Materials. Protein - 8.25% - Building Materials. Carbohydrates - 57.75% - Energy by which all work is done. Water & Vitamins, Minerals & Prebiotics(enzymes) - 90-92% - The Rest The proteins in breast milk are more easily digested than in formula or cow's milk. The calcium and iron in breast milk are also more easily absorbed. Nutrients Found in Breast Milk. The following is a brief overview of the components of breast milk and the nutrients they provide for your baby: Proteins. Human milk contains two types of. Grote, V., Verduci, E., Scaglioni, S. et al. Breast milk composition and infant nutrient intakes during the first 12 months of life. Eur J Clin Nutr 70, 250-256 (2016. environmental contaminants in breast milk [22], the micronutrient iodine [23-26] and the macronutrient and amino acid compositions [27]. In the present study, we investigated the composition of breast milk of an ethnically mixed population of NZ women as a first representation of the New Zealand national population Tag: Breast milk composition COLORS OF MILK. May 10, 2021 - Julie Matheney. Your milk can be a variety of colors which can be caused by a variety of things. Diets high in yellow-orange vegetables (yams, squash, carrots, etc) can lead to high levels of carotene in your milk, which can turn it yellow or orange

Human Milk Composition: Nutrients and Bioactive Factor

Breast milk composition is influenced by habitual diet, yet little is known about the short-term effects of changes in maternal diet on breast milk macronutrient concentrations. Our aim was to determine the acute effect of increased consumption of sugar/fat on breast milk protein, lactose and lipids Look at the bigger picture when deciding whether to give your baby breast milk or formula. Breast milk isn't just a food. It has an important protective function, reduces your baby's likelihood of diarrhoea, gastroenteritis, ear infections, colds and flu, and thrush 14-16 and halves his risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). 1

Breast Milk Composition: What's in Human Milk

Background: It is widely reported that maternal diet influences the nutritional composition of breast milk. The amount of variability in human milk attributable to diet remains mostly unknown Breast milk is the nutritious fluid produced by the mammary glands of mammals in order to feed the new-born. So, this is the key difference between colostrum and breastmilk. Moreover, colostrum is a thick yellowish fluid, while breast milk is a thin whitish fluid Its composition is not suitable and its proteins are difficult for the infant to digest. Source: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology. OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology. In the final weeks of pregnancy, the alveoli swell with colostrum, a thick, yellowish substance that is high in protein but contains less fat and glucose than mature breast milk The circadian rhythm of tryptophan in breast milk affects the rhythms of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin and sleep in newborns. Neuro Endocrinology Letters 2005; 26 (6):657-61. 5. Engler, 730. 6. Barkova, E.N. et al. Diurnal variations in qualitative composition of breast milk in women with iron deficiency

Breastmilk: Baby's Best Nutrition Chart 90693

In breast milk, choline exists in water-soluble (free choline, glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine) and lipid-soluble forms (phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin). Despite emerging evidence showing that these forms have different biologic effects, no systematic review has been conducted to elucidate the exact choline composition in breast milk breast milk. Only few investigations have been made on the fatty acid pattern in human breast milk during the first week after delivery (2, 4 , 9, 14, 16, 19). Regional differences in the composition of breast milk have been observed (2, 13, 17, 19). The existing re- ports, however, give very little information about normal indivi Antibodies from breast milk provide particular protection against infections of mucosal surfaces, such as the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the predominant antibody in breast milk and is the primary antibody that defends mucosal surfaces, while IgG is the most commonly produced antibody overall and is found.

Video: Breast Milk Composition Ronesca Nutrition for lif

What Is the Composition of Breast Milk? - Verywell Famil

Value-added 100% human milk-derived products over traditional human milk bank offerings. A human milk bank or breast milk bank is a service which collects, screens, processes, and dispenses by prescription, human milk donated by nursing mothers who are not biologically related to the recipient infant The mother's milk pacifies thirst of the new-born baby and even the hunger providing the required sugars, proteins, minerals and antibodies. The initial breastmilk has rich sources of IgA from the 10 th day to 7.5 months post-delivery. The breast milk comprises 0.8-09% protein, 4.5% fat, 7.1% carbohydrates and 0.2% ash (minerals)

Breast milk has varying levels of protein and fats depending on early birth or term birth. The most variable composition occurs with mothers delivering very premature infants. Yet most donor milk is.. Current research suggests that breast milk composition may even factor into the 'nature vs. nurture' argument because of the possible effects on infant personality. These findings demonstrate just a small piece of breast milk composition importance and the how it effects its consumers; future research should provide even more insight Here are the major differences between cow and human breast Milk explained. Protein: Leucine is a unique amino acid which is linked with growth. Animals that grow quickly after birth have higher levels of protein and leucine in their milk; cows have 3.3% leucine, humans have 0.9% leucine. Calves double their birth weight in 40 days; humans. Objectives: Describing preterm breast milk evolution and composition according to gestational age (GA) and postnatal age (PNA) in a cohort of mothers cared for in an ambulatory Kangaroo Mother Care Program (KMCP) in a developing country. Methods: A cohort involving 113 mothers who delivered 'healthy' preterms adequate for GA was assembled

Breastfeeding, Breast Milk Composition, and Growth

Breast milk contains very little iron; therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics. recommends that infants who only receive breast milk (exclusively breastfeed) will need a supplement of iron each day at a dose of 1 milligram of iron for each kilogram of body weight; this supplement of iron should start at 4 months of age. When infants. Breast milk samples were tested up to 48 hours after collection. No trace of mRNA from the vaccines was found in any sample. The San Francisco team noted that if minute amounts of mRNA—far too. Abstract. There is at present little information regarding the relationship of maternal age to breast milk volume and composition. In the 1950's, Hytten reported that the clinical impression is certainly widespread that the elderly primipara is particularly liable to experience difficulty in establishing and maintaining lactation (1, p. 844) After few days, milk becomes white in colour, and it is called mature or true milk. The composition of the milk differs only slightly within animals, but it contains significant amounts of saturated fats, proteins, calcium, and vitamins (especially vitamin C). The presence of vitamin C makes the milk to be slightly acidic. Breast Milk The effect of breast milk fatty acid (FA) composition on infant health outcomes is a promising area of research. Higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n3) levels in milk have been linked to improved visual or neurological outcomes in term infants in several (but not all) studies [1, 2]. Milk DHA levels vary widely around the world [3

Breast Milk Composition: Everything You Need to Know About It

(3) And while maternal diet does have some effect on the composition and taste of breastmilk, a mother's breast milk is adequate in essential nutrients, even when her own nutrition is inadequate. The volume of breastmilk is also relatively constant, regardless of maternal diet. (4) Major Components of Mature Breastmilk. 1. Nutrient Appendix G: The Composition of Human Milk includes numbers for early milk and mature milk from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council's (NHMRC) Infant Feeding Guidelines for Health Workers (note: this is a large PDF file)

Breast milk - Wikipedi

But composition of your breast milk can still change from day-to-day and feed to feed. For example, if you or your baby is unwell, your body will make antibiotics that will help fight the illness. As your baby grows the composition of the milk changes to meet as per the child's growth The composition of vitamins and minerals in breast milk is ideal, perfectly formulated for a growing baby. In addition to the vitamins and minerals listed below, breast milk contains vitamins A, C, D, E, and K, zinc, copper, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, potassium, sodium, magnesium, and folic acid; the amount depends on mom's diet The composition of breast milk is tailored to your baby! Y'all- the bond and synchronicity of you and your baby helps compose the breast milk to be exactly what it is. The infant helps determine the composition of the feed! I know this may seem nerdy but I think the science of breastfeeding is absolutely incredible A mother's milk is based on a large number of different substances and bioactive compounds. With adapting composition, it naturally matches the individual nu.. Breast milk composition of 119 samples collected by 46 women during months 7-20 of lactation was compared with composition of 101 samples collected at 4-6 months. Breast milk intake of 10 infants was determined by test-weighing for 1 or more months during months 7-16 of lactation

Mature Milk After 10-15 days, mature milk starts producing. Mature milk has 87 % water, 3.8% fat, 1.0% proteins and 7% lactose. High water level maintains hydration of the baby. The rest of the composition is necessary for overall growth and healthy development of the baby. Mature milk typically has two phases - foremilk and hindmilk New research suggests the composition of breast milk in normal weight mothers differs from that of overweight mothers, and that variations in small molecule metabolites found in breast milk are possible risk factors for childhood obesity. It's known that maternal obesity is one of the strongest predictors of childhood obesity. Get more HMS news her In addition, breast milk samples were collected from thirty mothers when their babies were one, two, three, and six months of age. The breast milk samples were analyzed to determine the amount of protein, the presence of digestible carbohydrates, total lipids, and fatty acid composition Breastmilk composition is constantly changing. Its makeup and taste depend on many factors, including how and when nurslings nurse, the time of year, where the mother lives, and what the mother eats. (1) Breastmilk contains growth factors, hormones, enzymes, and other substances that are immune-protective and foster proper growth and.

BREAST MILK exclusive breastfeeding widely recommended optimal nutrition for health, growth and development a highly complex mixture of nutrients dissolved or emulsified in water human milk composition is influenced by: genetic factors term or preterm delivery maternal nutrition stage of lactation time of da However, you need to remember that the quantity and quality of breast milk determine how steadily your little one will grow and develop. Now, the quantity and quality of breast milk depends on several factors. So, read on to know all about breast milk composition, supply, and the impact of maternal nutrition on this milk Breast milk composition is variable. While breast milk is the recommended feeding for all infants [1-3], including preterm infants [2, 4, 5], its variable composition makes estimating nutrient intakes difficult.Milk produced by mothers who deliver prematurely is well known to be higher in protein [4, 5].Milk composition changes with postnatal age; protein content decreases over weeks after.

The breast milk composition is 87% water, 7% lactose, 4% fat, and 1% protein. The fat and lactose (a kind of carb/sugar) give the vast majority of the energy in breast milk.Furthermore, that is actually what child needs. Additionally, a huge amount of different nutrientsmakesbreast milk something more than just about nutrition Breast milk composition. Carbohydrates in breast milk. The main carbohydrate in breast milk is lactose 8. Lactose, along with other carbohydrates in breast milk, provides a large amount of the energy content of breast milk to allow all the normal process in the body to occur

Fatty Acid Composition of Breast Milk Associated with the Development of Atopic Dermatitis in the Infant. The mean total fat concentration of breast milk was 3.7 g/100 mL (range 1.8-5.9) and was comparable between infants subsequently developing or not developing AD Breast milk composition after six months. You may be wondering what happens to your milk if you continue breastfeeding long-term. Can your body really keep producing such high-quality mature milk for months and months, or even years? The answer is, don't underestimate your breasts Breast milk macronutrient composition fell within normal ranges. ! No significant differences were noted in the mean milk intake values based on growth patterns from birth to 12 months. Table 4. Breast Milk Macronutrient Composition (mg/ml) Protein 10.3 ± 2.6 Carbohydrate (lactose) 78.5 ± 7.2 Fat 41.2 ± 14. Breast milk composition is variable. While breast milk is the recommended feeding for all infants [1-3], including preterm infants [2,4,5], its variable composition makes estimating nutrient intakes difficult. Milk produced by mothers who deliver prematurely is well known to be higher in protein [4,5]. Milk composition changes wit

Benefits of breast milk go beyond infant nutrition - Gut

Composition of breast milk It is generally known that breastfeeding supports the development and health of an infant to the best possible. The composition of breast milk is perfectly adjusted to the infant and influenced by the stage of lactation, the infant's age, the feeding duration as well as the infant's breastfeeding habits In this review, we discuss the composition of breast milk and the factors that affect it during the course of breast feeding.Understanding the components of breast milk and their functions will allow for the improvement of clinical practices, infant feeding and our understanding of immune responses to infection and vaccination in infants

The purpose of this study was to determine if breast milk composition changed significantly following exercise conducted at different intensities. Nine postpartum women exercised on a treadmill up to maximal oxygen uptake (100% of VO 2 max) on the first laboratory visit, for 30 minutes on two subsequent occasions (50% and 75% of VO 2 max) and. Formula Human Milk Substitutes History Regulation Composition and indications Formula Composition Breast Milk as gold standard Attempt to duplicate composition of breast milk ? Bioactivity, relationship, function of all factors present in breast milk ? Measure outcome: growth, composition, functional indices Examples: DHA/ARA, Prebiotics. The following issues will be described and discussed: Growth pattern in BF infant compared to formula fed infants and the background for developing the WHO growth standards based on BF infants. Effect of BF on early body composition pattern and later risk of obesity. Effect of BF on growth related hormones e.g. IGF-I, leptin and insulin. Is BF programming the IGF-I axis and what is the effect. During the course of lactation breast milk will adapt its composition to meet the needs of the growing baby. Amount of breast milk produced Colostrum is the first milk secreted by the udder and is produced in very low quantities on average from 7 to 14 ml per feeding in the first 24 hours

breast milk composition(6,7,9);however,significant variation in the macronutrient content of breast milk exists between and within mothers(6,10-22),reflected by wide variations in macro-nutrient values derived by studies and adopted by neonatal intensive care units and industry to fortify milk, raising concern What are the Benefits & Composition of breast milk? By Kumar / August 18, 2020 August 26, 2020. Share: Breast milk is an ideal food for neonates. It is the best gift that a mother can give to her baby. It contains all the nutrients for normal growth and development of a baby from the time of birth to the first six months of life

Natural & Organic Baby Formula Options & Alternatives

Breast milk changes constantly to meet babies' needs. The milk changes in volume and composition according to the time of day, nursing frequency, and age of baby to promote healthy growth. Breast milk is the perfect food for your baby. Breast milk is always ready and good for the environment. It is. Breast milk is the optimal food for infant growth and development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between breast milk macronutrient composition with dietary pattern among lactating women. A total of 220 lactating women from 2011 to 2012 in Changsha, a city of south-central China, was recruited using a multi-stage sampling method

Breast milk composition | What’s in your breast milk? | MedelaBreast feedingProtein Content of Breast Milk | Frederic Patenaude RawBreast milk management solutions for hospital staff | Medela

habits, which causes drastic alterations to the composition of breast milk (2018). Smoking tobacco does not only attenuate the protective properties of breast milk, but also affects the baby's well-being. The specific pathophysiological mechanisms which underpin these adverse effects are still nebulous and warrant further research in the field Breast milk samples (4, 11, 30, 60, and 90 (all ±3) days post-partum) were collected from 59 healthy women delivering preterm infants. The total and sn-2 milk FA composition was determined using gas chromatography Breast milk composition. Common Questions and Answers about Breast milk composition. milk. While the composition of milk does change, it is still great for baby- even milk from a different time and frozen still has more beneficial properties than formula. This little one will be getting frozen milk when I quit pumping Background Breastfeeding with mother's milk is the best form of nutrition not only for newborn babies, but especially for premature babies, due to the health benefits of taking human food. Objectives The aim of the study was to examine the basic composition, cortisol concentration and antioxidant status of breast milk samples from women giving birth before 37 weeks of pregnancy and comparing.